What does a motor oil do in my engine and why is it important?
The main purpose of motor oil is to stop metal from touching metal.
An engine contains hundreds of moving parts that must be kept separate
from each other. If metal surfaces come in contact, wear may occur and
friction will increase. With friction comes heat, and heat will warp and
distort moving engine parts.
Motor oil creates a slick film between metal parts that lets them glide over each other.
Properties of a good lubricant
• Reduces friction and prevents wear;
• Allows for easy starting;
• Seals tiny gaps between the piston ring and cylinder walls;
• Cools moving parts by dispersing heat;
• Keeps engine surfaces clean;
• Holds foreign deposits (like by products of combustion) in suspension away from engine parts;
• Prevents rust and corrosion.
What is motor oil made up of?
Modern motor oils are made up of the following:
The base stocks used can be conventional stocks, man made synthetics or a mixture of conventional and synthetic stocks.
Conventional base oils are made from crude oil which has undergone certain extraction processes and minor chemical restructuring in an oil refinery. Conventional base oils are a mixture of thousands of different chemicals.
Synthetic differ from conventional base oils in that they synthesized from relatively pure chemicals for specifically designed performance characteristics. The raw material for synthetics could come from many sources. Synthetic base stocks generally offer superior low temperature flow properties and enhanced response to certain engine oil additives.
API Base Oil Definitions
Base oil is the name given to lubrication grade oils initially
produced from refining crude oil (mineral base oil) or through chemical
synthesis (synthetic base oil). Base oil is typically defined as oil
with a boiling point range between 550 and 1050 F, consisting of
hydrocarbons with 18 to 40 carbon atoms. This oil can be either
paraffinic or naphthenic in nature depending on the chemical structure
of the molecules.
Group I base stocks contain less than 90 percent saturates and/or greater than .03 percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.
Group II base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to .03 percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.
Group III base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to .03 percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to 120.
Group IV base stocks are polyalphaolefins (PAO).
Group V base stocks include all other base stocks not included in Group I, II, III, IV.
Monograde oils, as defined by the SAE J300 classification system, cover a single requirement and cannot use a polymeric viscosity index improver (also referred to as a viscosity modifier).
SAE J300 has established eleven viscosity grades see fig.1, of which six are considered Winter-grades and given a “W” designation. For single winter grade oils, the dynamic viscosity is measured at different cold temperatures, specified in J300 depending on the viscosity grade, in units of mPa/s. Based on the coldest temperature the oil passes at, that oil is graded as SAE viscosity grade 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, or 25W. The lower the viscosity grade, the lower the temperature the oil can pass. For example, if an oil passes at the specifications for 10W and 5W, but fails for 0W, then that oil must be labeled as an SAE 5W. It cannot be labeled as either 0W or 10W.
As opposed to monograde oils which cover
a single requirement as stipulated by the SAE J300 classification
system, multi-grade oils meet the requirements of more than one SAE
grade and may therefore be suitable for use over a wider temperature
range than a monograde oil.
Multigrade oils are made by blending a low-viscosity oil with special additives called Viscosity Index Improver (VII) VII are additives which improve the temperature/viscosity characteristics of oils.
Oils containing these additives, combine the good starting and friction properties of a thin oil at low temperatures with the good lubricating properties of a more viscous oil at high temperatures.
Active ingredients in additives
Oil is the life blood of an engine and just like the blood in our bodies, it is required to fulfill a number of functions. Oil does not only lubricate, it also carries away heat, dissolves contaminants, carries away debris and provides a working medium for such things as hydraulic lifters.
All oils, whether mineral or synthetic, have additives mixed into the package which fortifies the oil to do its job. The majority of finished lubricants thus all consist of a base oil (or a mixture of different base oils) and a additive package. When we refer to the oil being either mineral or synthetic, we thus refer to its base oil component.
Additives are the “active ingredient” in motor oils. These additives must be replenished through regular oil changes. They may include any of the following:
• Detergents are
used to clean neutralize oil impurities which would normally cause
deposits (oil sludge) on vital engine parts. Typical detergents are
• Rust and Corrosion inhibiting additives retard the oxidation of metal parts inside the engine.
• Oxidation Inhibitors retard the degradation of the stock oil by oxidation. Typical additives are organic amines or phenols.
• Metal Deactivators create a film on metal surfaces to prevent the metal from causing the oil to be oxidized.
• Viscosity Index Improvers make an oil’s viscosity higher at elevated temperatures, improving its viscosity index (VI). This combats the tendency of the oil to become thin at high temperature. The advantage of using less viscous oil with a high VI improver is that it will have improved low temperature fluidity as well as being viscous enough to lubricate at operating temperature. Most multi-grade oils have viscosity modifiers. Some synthetic oils are engineered to meet multi-grade specifications without them.
• Pour Point Depressants improve the oil’s ability to flow at lower temperatures.
WHAT ARE SAE RATINGS?
The most widely used system for engine oil classification is that established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) in the USA.
In this system, two series of viscosity grades are defined – those
containing the letter “W” and those without it. Grades with the letter
“W” are intended for use at lower temperatures and are based on a
maximum low temperature viscosity and a maximum borderline pumping
temperature, as well as a minimum viscosity at 100°C. The low
temperature viscosity is measured by means of a multi-temperature
version of ASTM D2602. This test describes the method for apparent
viscosity of motor oils at low temperature using the Cold Cranking
Viscosities measured by this method have been found to correlate with engine speeds developed during low temperature cranking. Borderline pumping temperature is measured according to ASTM D3829. This provides a measure of an oil’s ability to flow to the oil pump and provide adequate pressure during the initial stages of operation.
Oils without the letter ”W”, intended for use at higher temperatures, are based on the viscosity at 100°C only.
These are measured by ASTM D445.
|AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT VISCOSITY GRADES – ENGINE OIL – SAE J 300|
|SAE||LOW TEMP. VISCOSITIES||HIGH TEMP. VISCOSITIES||HIGH TEMP. VISCOSITIES|
|Viscosity Grade||Pump ability Temp. Limits||Viscosity Grade||Kinematic Viscosity (mm2/s) at 100 C|
WHAT ARE API RATINGS?
The American Petroleum Institute (API) classification system provides information about the engine oil.
The letter “S” followed by another letter (for example “SM”) indicates that the oil is appropriate for Petrol engines. SM oils are superior to SL oils in many performance criteria including enhanced fuel efficiency whilst also meeting the “energy conserving” classification and enhanced emissions systems protection. Example: Saheli PowerSynth XL 5W30, API SN
The letter “C” followed by another letter and/or number (for example
CI-4) indicates that the oil is appropriate for Diesel engines.
Example: Saheli PowerDrive CF 10W, API CF
The second letter in both the “S” and the “C” categories is assigned alphabetically. Generally the further along we move in the alphabet indicates the latest technology and quality enhancements in motor oil.
It is important to highlight that some labels will display API grade like Sx/Cx meaning that the product is designed to meet both Petrol and Diesel engines’ requirements. Example: Saheli Ultra XS 15W40 API CI-4/SL
API Standards Classification – Please visit API official website for more information – http://www.api.org/
WHAT ARE ACEA RATINGS?
ACEA stands for the Association des Constructeurs Europeens d’Automobiles and represents a large group of European engine manufacturers. ACEA has established four performance categories:
• The A category for petrol engines;
• The B category for passenger car diesel engines;
• The C category represents catalyst compatible oils;
• The E category for heavy duty diesel engines.
A Category (petrol engines)
A1 and A2 oils represent the base performance level with A1 being used for lower viscosity fuel efficient oils and A2 for higher viscosity oils. A3 and A5 oils are the highest performing ACEA gasoline engine oils with the A3 being used for the higher performance oils and A5 for the high performance lower viscosity fuel efficient oils.
The A4 classification is reserved for a future specification for direct injection gasoline engines.
B Category (passenger car diesel engines)
The B category is similarly divided with the exception that the B4 classification for direct injection passenger diesel engines has been established and that the B5 classification combines the performance requirements of B3 and B4 in lower viscosity fuel efficient oil.
C Category (catalyst compatible engines)
The C category is intended for use with vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters and three way catalysts in petrol applications. C1 and C2 classifications are based on ACEA A5/B5 ratings, whilst the C3 classification is based on ACEA A3/B3 ratings.
WHAT ARE ILSAC RATINGS?
ILSAC stands for the International Lubricant Standardization Advisory Committee. For lubricants to meet the GF specification, they must prove to be energy conserving.
With the latest rating being GF-4, it provides better fuel economy than GF-3. In the Australian market you may find the following ILSAC ratings:
ILSAC GF-3 (introduced in 2001)
ILSAC GF-4 (introduced in 2004)
WHAT ARE OEM APPROVALS?
Some OEMs specify that engine oils must meet a range of stringent requirements before it can be used and warranted in their engines. To minimize misapplication, Saheli have noted whether these requirements have been met by noting OEM performance specifications on pack; the most common approvals in Australia being the following:
• BMW: LL98 and LL01
• M2C-915A, M2C 153E/F and M2C-153G
• MB229.1, MB229.3 and MB229.5
• VW502.00, VW503.01, VW504.00, VW505.00 and VW507.00
Viscosity or SAE rating
API, ACEA, ILSAC and OEM approval
Please refer to our products catalogue to choose the appropriate products that meet your requirements.
The degradation of in-service oils is inherent to their use; the rate
of degradation of oils depends on various factors, including the
chemical composition of the base oil, the type and quantity of additives
and inhibitors and the conditions of use of the oil in service.
The main factors involved in the life of an oil are thermal stability and oxidation.
The thermal stability of an oil is its ability to resist chemical changes, mainly because of a rise in temperature and in the absence of oxygen.
The oxidative stability of an oil is its ability to resist chemical changes due to temperature rise in the presence of oxygen.
A high quality oil keeps these substances in suspension until they are filtered or drained during an oil change.
Any oil deteriorates and loses its properties over time due to the high pressures and temperatures to which it is subjected. This degradation may be accelerated depending on the use of the equipment of vehicle.
E.g. City trips or routes at high speed are particularly demanding.
The oil is also polluted by impurities such as residues of combustion, moisture, dust and unburned fuel.
However, looking after your vehicle is not just a matter of changing your oil regularly.
For maximum engine protection Saheli recommends that you also change your oil filter every time you change your oil.
Cleaning and protecting your fuel system is as important to your car’s performance as changing the oil.
For maximum engine performance add fuel injector cleaner to your fuel every time you change your oil and every 5000km.
Oil thins when heated and thickens when cooled. The lubrication credentials of the oil is determined by the viscosity number (measuring its thickness or resistance to liquefaction).
In the case of motor oil, the viscosity must be able to withstand extreme thermal operating conditions.
Saheli offer the choice of a mineral based, synthetic blend or full synthetic lubricants – which one you choose is dependent on your vehicle, driving habits and the environment.
Change Oil Filter
When selected correctly and properly installed, Saheli filters meet or exceed OEM requirements. Saheli guarantees its filters are completely free of any fault or defects in both materials and workmanship. When you buy Saheli filters, you can be sure your engine is well protected.
After the oil change service, do not throw away your used oils in the soil or in the gutters or drains.
Please contact us to learn more about how to handle your waste oils:
Saheli’s range of conventional mineral based oils are suitable for the everyday driver.
Standard service conditions can be met with the following very Good performance products:
Saheli Falcon XS 10W40
• High quality base oil and advance additive technology to provide excellent engine protection
• Special rust inhibitors to reduce rust in hydraulic valve liners and other critical parts
• Enhanced fuel efficiency and reduction of hydro-carbon pollution
• API SM
• ILSAC GF-4
Saheli Falcon S 20W50
• For latest high performance passenger cars and light duty vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel engines
• Active engine cleanliness
• Anti-wear technology to minimize engine wear and reduce maintenance costs
• Special rust inhibitors to retard formation of rust and corrosion in critical engines parts
• API SL/CF
• ACEA A3/B3
Saheli Premium GTS 20W50
• For turbocharged gasoline powered passenger cars and diesel powered light vehicles
• Excellent engine cleanliness and protection against rust and corrosion
• Reliable lubrication even at higher load and high operating temperatures
• API SJ/CF
• ACEA A3/B3
Saheli Premium GT 20W50
• Offered protection for cars manufactured before 1993
• Turbocharged and naturally aspirated gasoline powered passenger cars and diesel powered light duty vehicles
• API SG/CD
Saheli Premium Motor Oil S50
• Offered protection for cars manufactured before 1993
• Passenger cars, light trucks and vans with naturally aspirated gasoline engines or light duty diesel engines
• API SF/CF
Sometimes you need a Better oil to cope with your driving conditions.
Severe service conditions can be met with the following products:
Saheli Power SemiSynth – 5W40, 10W30, 10W40, 15W40, 15W50, 20W50
• High performance semi-synthetic passenger car motor oil designed to provide optimum performance
• For modern high performance, multi valve, turbocharged and supercharged engines of passenger cars, vans, SUVs and light trucks
• Arduous conditions such as city stop‐and-go, high-speed and/or high load
• API SL/SJ/CF
• ACEA A3/B3/B4
Saheli Zonda Synth X – 5W30, 5W40, 10W40, 15W40
• Extra high performance synthetic heavy‐duty diesel engine
• Premium quality synthetic base fluids and advanced additive technology
• Highest degree of reliability even under severe operating conditions
• Extended drain intervals and Superior engine protection
• API CI-4/CJ-4/CF-4/SM/SL
• ACEA E7/E4
• CUMMINS CES 20072, 20076, 20077, 20078 MTU Cat. 3
Saheli Zonda HDX – 10W30, 15W40
• High performance diesel engines with low emission meeting US 2007 standard
• Improved protection to older engines
• Significant extension of engine life
• For mixed fleet – Diesel and Gasoline engines
• API CJ‐4, CI‐4 PLUS, CI‐4, CH-4, CF-4, SM, SL, SJ
• CUMMINS CES 20081
• MTU Type. 3
Saheli Zonda HD 15W40
• For all diesel engines in trucks and off‐highway vehicles, including the latest European high performance diesel engines
• Superior performance in high‐speed diesel engines, including turbo‐charged engines
• Extended long drain periods
• Engine life extension
• Improved fuel economy
• Outstanding engine cleanliness
• API CH-4/CG-4/CF-4/CF-2/SJ
• CUMMINS CES 20076, 20071, 20072
• MTU Type. 2
• Caterpillar TO-2
Saheli Ultra XS 15W40
• Blended from selected base stocks and new generation performance additives
• Extra High performance heavy duty diesel engines used in mining, construction, agriculture and other off‐highway
• Exceptional protection and extended life to diesel engines operating on low or high Sulphur diesel
• Outstanding performance in modern SUVs and 4×4 engines
• For mixed fleet – Diesel and Gasoline engines
• API CI‐4, CH-4, CG-4, CF-4, SL
• CUMMINS CES 20076, 20071, 20072,20077,20078
• MTU Type2
• Caterpillar ECF-1
Saheli PowerSynth XL – 5W30, 10W30, 10W40, 20W50
• Fully Synthetic premium motor oil for most modern high output gasoline and turbocharged engines
• State of the art additive technology coupled with superior quality base oils
• Reduce oil consumption and hydro-carbon pollution.
• Improving sludge protection, piston cleanliness, turbo-charger protection, seal compatibility, wear protection and compatible with ethanol‐containing fuels up to E85.
• API SN
• ILSAC GF-5
Saheli Zonda Synth ELD 10W40
• ELD : Extra Long Drain
• Ultra High Performance Diesel” (UHPD) engine oil, formulated with synthetic base oils and high quality additives
• For high output, high speed turbocharged diesel engines
• Extended oil change intervals of 120.000 km
• API CF-4
• CUMMINS CES 20072,20076,20077,20078
• MTU Type. 3
Saheli PowerSynth – 0W30, 5W30, 5W40
• Formulated from finest quality synthetic base stocks and state‐of-the-art additive technology
• For all modern turbocharged, high output gasoline and diesel engines of passenger cars, SUVs, light vans and trucks
• Improved fuel economy and extended drain intervals reduce the cost of ownership
• Excellent low temperature fluidity aids quick cold start and provides wear protection at start-up
• Active cleaning agents ensure maximum engine cleanliness
• API SM/CF – 5W40, API SL/CF – 5W30, API SJ/CF – 0W30
• ACEA A3/B3-04/B4-04